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New Study Finds COVID-19 DNA Linked to Moderna Patent Filed in 2016, Sparks Discussion on Lab Leak Theory
"So it doesn't mean very much, to be frank, if you do these types of searches, you can always find matches.
"Sometimes these things happen fortuitously, sometimes it's the result of convergent evolution (when organisms evolve independently to have similar traits to adapt to their environment).
"It's a quirky observation, but I wouldn't call it a smoking gun because it's too small.
"It doesn't get us any further with the debate about whether COVID-19 was engineered," Young said.
A statement from the US drug maker Moderna is awaited, the report said.
The recommended Daily Value (DV) for vitamin D is 800 international units (IU), or 20 mcg per day for all adults and children over 4 years old. For children aged 1–3, it's 600 IU or 15 mcg per day (1).
With the exception of fatty fish like salmon, which contains 447 IU in a 3-ounce (85-gram) serving, very few foods are good sources of vitamin D. Instead, most vitamin D is made in your body when your skin is exposed to the sun (2Trusted Source).
People who live in northern latitudes where sunshine is limited in the winter, as well as those who don't spend much time in the sun, often have lower blood levels of vitamin D (2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source).
Other factors, such as having obesity or underweight, being physically inactive, and having certain genetic mutations, can also put you at risk of having lower vitamin D levels (4Trusted Source).
Taking a supplement and using fortified foods like vitamin D milk are good ways to increase your intake and blood levels of vitamin D.
In some countries, including Canada and Sweden, vitamin D is added to cow's milk by law. In the United States, it's not mandated, but most milk manufacturers add it voluntarily during milk processing (5Trusted Source).
It has been added to cow's milk since the 1930s when the practice was implemented as a public health initiative to reduce rickets, which causes poor bone development and deformities in children (6Trusted Source).
While milk doesn't naturally contain vitamin D, it's a good source of calcium. These two nutrients work well together, as vitamin D aids calcium absorption into your bones, thus helping strengthen them.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows manufacturers to add up to 84 IU per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of vitamin D3 to cow's milk and 84 IU per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of vitamin D2 to plant-based milk alternatives (9Trusted Source).
Drinking vitamin D milk increases the amount of vitamin D people get and improves levels of vitamin D in the blood (5Trusted Source).
Studies in Finland, where vitamin D milk has been mandatory since 2003, found that 91% of milk drinkers had vitamin D levels at or above 20 ng/ml, which is considered sufficient according to the Institute of Medicine (7Trusted Source, 10Trusted Source).
Vitamin D milk is enhanced with vitamin D during processing. This vitamin is added because it works with the calcium in milk to strengthen your bones. Drinking vitamin D milk can also help boost your vitamin D levels.
Still, having higher levels of vitamin D is linked to important health benefits — and they extend beyond improved bone health.
Vitamin D is needed for proper cell growth, nerve and muscle function, and a healthy immune system. It likewise helps reduce inflammation, which is thought to contribute to conditions like heart disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and cancer (2Trusted Source).
Studies that have compared vitamin D levels with disease risk suggest that having lower blood levels of the vitamin is linked to a higher risk of a wide range of chronic diseases, while having adequate or higher levels seems to result in a lower risk (13Trusted Source).
May reduce heart disease risk
A major risk factor for heart disease is a cluster of conditions known as metabolic syndrome. It includes high blood pressure, insulin resistance, excess abdominal weight, high triglycerides, and low HDL (good) cholesterol.
Additionally, higher levels of vitamin D are linked to healthier blood vessels (14Trusted Source).
A study in nearly 10,000 people found that those who got more vitamin D from supplements or diet — including fortified milk — had higher blood levels of the vitamin, less stiffness in their arteries, and lower blood pressure, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels (14Trusted Source).
May reduce cancer risk
Because vitamin D plays a major role in healthy cell division, development, and growth, it's thought that it may also play a role in preventing the growth of cancer cells.
Research that looked at vitamin D levels and cancer risk in 2,300 women over the age of 55 found that blood levels greater than 40 ng/ml were associated with a 67% lower risk of all types of cancer (15Trusted Source).
Furthermore, Australian scientists who followed 3,800 adults for 20 years found the same benefit for breast and colon cancer, but not all types of cancer (16Trusted Source).
Though these studies looked only at vitamin D levels and not how the vitamin was obtained, a review of studies investigating the link between dairy milk and cancer found that it was protective against colorectal, bladder, stomach, and breast cancer (17Trusted Source).
Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases
Low vitamin D levels are often observed in those with autoimmune diseases, including: (18Trusted Source)
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- rheumatoid arthritis
- multiple sclerosis
- systemic lupus erythematosus
- type 1 diabetes
- Crohn's disease